The Outcomes Star is a suite of tools for supporting and measuring change. There are over 20 versions of the Outcomes Star. They are sector-wide tools - different versions of the Star include homelessness, mental health and young people. All versions consist of a number of scales based on an explicit model of change which creates coherence across the whole tool and a Star Chart.

Property Definition Outcomes Star
Internal consistency Degree to which similar items within a scale correlate with each other Good internal consistency reported by Dickens et al. (2012) for the Recovery Star
Convergent validity Correlation of the measure with others measuring same concept Good convergent validity with a measure of social functioning reported by Kallaspy el al. (2012) for the Recovery Star
Test-retest reliability Degree to which the same respondents have the same score after period of time when trait shouldn't have changed Good test-retest reliability reported by Kallaspy el al. (2012) for the Recovery Star
Inter-rater reliability Degree to which different raters agree on a score Good inter-rater reliability reported by MacKeith 2014 for the Family Star


Across the life span.


Translations are available: some versions of the Star are available in Italian, French, Welsh, Danish, Finnish, Dutch, Swedish and Mandarin. For other translations please contact Triangle


The Star is best scored in collaboration between service users and workers, and the scores are plotted on the Star to provide a picture of the current situation. By repeating the scoring at a later time, the difference in the two readings provides a picture of change.

Scoring and interpretation

All versions of the Outcomes Star are made up of several scales displayed in the shape of a Star. Each scale has clearly defined behaviour and attitudes expected at each point. Scales are designed around a five-point model of change, whereby there are pre-defined steps to reach an end goal (i.e. the Journey of Change).

Terms of use

A licence to use the Star is required. See www.outcomesstar.org.uk/using-the-star/ for further information.

Further information



Dickens, G., Weleminsky, J., Onifade, Y. and Sugarman, P. (2012), “Recovery star: validating user recovery”, The Psychiatrist, Vol. 36, pp. 45-50.

Killaspy, H., White, S. and King, M. (2012), “Psychometric properties of the mental health recovery star”, British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 201, pp. 65-70.

MacKeith (2014). Assessing the Reliability of the Outcomes Star in Research and Practice. Journal of Housing, Care and Support, 17, 4.

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